# Pharma Engineering

An Engineer's Choice

• ## Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Dear All.......!!!
Good Evening, Hope you all are good, Thanks for the support that i'm receiving for maintaining this blog, wish this'll continue all time.

Recently i've received a common query from Mechie (Mech. Engineer / Project Engineer) and one of my colleague,

And i think some of us also will have the same, to address their query today i'm posting this here, this may be a basic post but i've taken some time to think over it and to make it best possible solution.

But before going to that there is some basic stuff, which need to be accepted by all those who are reading this post, or else there may be slightly misunderstanding erupted in-between.

What is a reactor ?

Reactor is a vessel having an agitator and other accessories which are intended for measuring and maintaining it in safe condition.

What are the operations that can be carried in a reactor ?

The main operation is reaction, apart from that it can be used for extraction, concentration, crystallization and many more.

What are the sub components of a reactor ?

The notable sub components  of a reactor are condenser, collection receiver, safety valve, rupture disc, etc.

What is the main duty of a condenser ?

The main duty of a condenser is to condense the vapour, to deliver exactly the main purpose is to remove the latent heat of vapour. Apart from that the condenser will perform some unofficial duty by removing some of the sensible heat from the condensed liquid.

That's it....!!! Now lets begin the calculation.

[How to] Map equipments for a manufacturing process
[How to] Determine Overall Heat transfer Coefficient practically ?

Lets consider a case where a 10 KL SS reactor is available and we need to select a condenser for that reactor.

Step - 1: Select a solvent having high volatility.

Step - 2: Calculate the maximum boil-up of the selected solvent.

Step - 3: Calculate the Condenser Capacity for that boil-up.

That's it ...!! your job is done.

Now, lets begin,

Step - 1: Solvent selection based on boiling point,

Below is the list of solvent and their boiling points [from my database],

 Solvent Name B.P. (°C) Solvent Name B.P. (°C) (N N) Dimethy Amino ethyl Acrylate 95 Di Cyclo Hexyl Amine 255 (R)-Glycidyl Butyrate 90 Di Ethyl Oxalate 186 (S)-3-Chloro 1-Propanethiol 144 Di Isopropyl Adipate 125 1-(Trimethylsilyl)-1-Propyne 95 Di Isopropyl Ether 67 1,1,3,3-Tetramethoxy Propane 183 Di N-butyl Sebacate (Diester) 349 1,1,3,3-Tetramethyl Guanidine 158 DI Water (Acidified with HCl) 100 1,1-Dichloro-3,3-Dimethyl Butane 146 Dibenzyl Phosphite 110 1,2-Dibromoethane 131 Dibutyl Phthalate 340 1,2-Dimethoxyethane 82 Dicyclopentadiene 170 1,2-Dibromo Methane 96 Diethanolamine 268 1,3 - Difluoro Benzene 82 Diethyl Carbonate 126 1,4-Dimethyl Piperazine 131 Diethyl Ether 34.6 1,4-Dibromobutane (DBB) 63 Diethyl Ethoxymethylene Malonate 278 1,4-Dichloro Butane 161 Diethyl Malonate 199 1,4-dioxane 101.3 Diethyl Phthalate 296 1,6-Dibromohexane 243 Diethyl Sulphate 208 1,8-Diazabicyclo(5.4.0)undec-7-ene 80 Diethylamine 55 10-Undecenoyl Chloride 120 Diethylene Glycol 244 1-Acetopapthone 302 Diethyl-L-Tartarate 280 1-Aminopiperidine 146 Diisopropyl Amine 84 1-Bromo 2-Fluoro Benzene 78 Dimethoxyethane 64.5 1-Bromo 4-Fluoro Benzene 150 Dimethyl Carbonate 90 1-Bromo-2,4,6-Trifluorobenzene 140.5 Dimethyl Formamide 153 1-Bromo-2-Fluoroethane 71 Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) 189 1-Bromo-3,4,5-Trifluorobenzene 47 Dimethylsulfide 37 1-Bromo-3-Chloro Propane 144 Diphenyl Phosphine 280 1-Bromo-4-chloro Butane 80 Dowtherm A 257 1-Bromopentane 130 Ethane Sulfonyl Chloride 177 1-Chloroethyl Chloroformate 118 Ethanol 78.3 1-Dodecanethiol 143 Ethyl Acetate 77 1-Fluoro Naphthalene 215 Ethyl Aceto Acetate 180 1-Methylimidazole 198 Ethyl Acrylate 99 1-Phenyl Ethyl Isocyanate 55 Ethyl Bromoacetate 159 2,4-Dichloro Fluoro Benzene 143 Ethyl Chloro Acetate 143 2,2,2-Trifluoro Ethanol 77 Ethyl Chloroformate 93 2-Fluoronitrobenzene 116 Ethyl Iodide 69 2-(2-Chloro Ethoxy) Ethanol 79 Ethyl isocyano acetate 195 2-(2-Thienyl) Ethanol 108 Ethyl Methyl Ketone 78 2-(2-Thienyl) Methylamine 95 Ethyl Nipecotate 102 2-(3-Amino Propylamino)-Ethanol 250 Ethyl Nipecotate 102 2,2,4-Trimethyl Pentane 99 Ethyl Oxalyl Chloride 135 2,3-Dimethyl Pyrazine 156 Ethyl Propiolate 120 2,3-Lutidine 162 Ethylbromodifluroacetate 112 2,3,4- Trifluoroaniline 92 Ethylene Di Chloride 83.5 2,3,Dihydro Benzofuran 188 Ethylhexyl Stearate >200 2,3-Benzofuran 173 Eucalyptus Oil 174 2,4-Dichloro Benzylamine 83 Euxyl K 100 100 2,5 Norbornadiene 89 Fluoro Benzene 85 2,5-Bis(Trifluoromethyl) Aniline 70 Formamide 210 2,5-Dichlorothiophene 146 Formic Acid 100.8 2,5-Dimethoxy Tetrahydrofuran 145 Fuming Nitric Acid 86 2,6-Lutidine 143 Furfuryl Alcohol 170 2,6-Difluoro Aniline 51 Gamma-Butyro Lactone 206 2,6-Difluoro Nitrobenzene 91 Glutarldehyde 50 % Solu. (198595) 187 2,6-Dimethyl Aniline 214 Glycerol BP 290 2-Acetyl Butyro Lactone 107 Hexa methyl Disilazane 125 2-Acetyl Thiophene 214 Hexane 69 2-Aminomethyl Pyridine 202 Hexene 64 2-Amino Thiophenol 70 Hexylene Glycol 198.3 2-Bromo Ethanol 149 HF/Pyridine(70%) - 2-Bromo Biphenyl 297 Hydrazine Hydrate 118 2-Butyl Alcohol 99.5 Hydrobromic Acid 124 2-Chloro Ethanol 127-136 Hydrochloric Acid 50.5 2-Chloro Ethyl isocyanate 135 Hydrogen Peroxide 150.2 2-Chloro Pyridine 170 Iso Butanol 108 2-Fluoro Toluene 113 Iso Butylchlororformate 128.8 2-Fluorobenzyl Bromide 84 Iso Butyraldehyde 63 2-Methoxy 1-Propanol 130 Iso Propyl Acetate 89 2-Methyl Tetrahydrofuran 78 Iso Propyl Bromide 59 2-Methyl-1-Butanol 132 Iso Propyl Chloride 34 2-MethylaminoEthanol 150-159 Isoamyl Alcohol 132 2-Methylfuran 63 Isonicotinaldehyde 77 2-Phenyl Ethylamine 197 Isoparaffin 115 2-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde 181 Isopropenyl Acetate 94 2-Pyrrolidinone 245 Isopropyl Alcohol 82 2-Tetra Hydrofuroic Acid 128 Isopropyl Myristate BP 192.6 3,2-Dimethoxy Propane 81 Isovaleraldehyde 90 3 4 Difluoronitro Benzene 76 Lactic Acid 122 3- Chloro Aniline 230.5 m-Chloropyridine 148 3-Methyl-2-Butanone 94.2 Methacryloyl Chloride 95 3,3-Dimethyl Piperidine 136 Methane Sulfonic Acid 100 3,3-Dimethylbutyraldehyde 104 Methanol 63.9 3,4 Dichloro Benzoyl Chloride 242 Methyisobutylketone 116.8 3,4 dimethyl Benzylamine 178 Methyl Acetoacetate 169 3,4,5-Trimethoxy Toluene 117 Methyl Acrylate 80 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzyl Alcohol 228 Methyl Cellosolve 124.4 3,4-Dihydropyran 86 Methyl Chloroacetate 130 3,5-Lutidine 169 Methyl Cyanoacetate 204 3-Amino-1-Propanol 187 Methyl Formate 31.5 3-Bromo-5-Fluorobenzonitrile 210 Methyl Iodide 42.5 3-Bromoanisole 210 Methyl Propyl Ketone 100 3-Butyn-1-ol 128.9 Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether 54 3-Chloro Benzaldehyde 213 Methylene Chloride 40 3-Chlorobenzy Bromide 109 Mono Isopropyl Amine 32 3-Cyclohexene-1-Methanol 80 Mono methyl amine - 40 % 48 3-Methoxy Benzaldehyde 143 Monoethylene Glycol 198 3-Methoxy Thiophenol 223 Morpholine 128.9 3-Methoxypropyl Amine 109 N- Benzylethanolamine 153 3-N,N,Dimethylamino Acrolein 279 n Butyl  Acetate 126.5 4 -Amino Butyric Acid 60 N N  Diethyl Aniline 217 4-(Trifluoromethoxy)aniline 73 N N N N-Tetramethyl Ethylenediamine 120 4-Amino-1-Butanol 206 N, O-Bis Trimethyl Silyl Acetamide 71 4-Chloro Ethylacetoacetate 209 N,N Diisopropylethylamine 127 4-Chlorobutyryl Chloride 173 N,N-Diisopropyl Carbodiimide 145 4-Ethylmorpholine 139 N,N-Dimethyl Acetamide 164 4-Fluoro Acetophenone 196 N,N-Dimethyl Aniline 192 4-Fluoro Aniline 188 N,N-Dimethyl Benzylamine 178 4-Fluoro Nitrobenzene 205 N,N-Dimethyl Eththylenediamine 104 4-Fluorobenzoyl Chloride 82 N,N-Dimethyl Propylene Urea 146 4-Isobutylacetophenone 107 N,N-Dimethylformamidedimethylacetal 102 4-Methoxy Phenyl Acetone 145 n-Butanol 117.2 4-Methoxybenzyl Chloride 117 n-Butyl Amine 78 4-Methyl Acetophenone 226 N-Ethyl Piperzine 157 4-Methylthio Benzaldehyde 89-90 n-Heptane 98.4 4-Phenyl 1-Butanol 140 N-Hexyl Amine 131 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Nitrile 97 N-Isopropyl Aniline 206 5 Fluoro Benzaldehyde 181 Nitric Acid 86 5-Ethyl-2-Methylpyridine 178 Nitrobenzene 210.8 5-Fluoro-2-Nitrotoluene 97 Nitromethane 101.2 Acetic Acid 118 N-Methyl 2- Pyrrolidinone - Acetic Anhydride 140 N-Methyl Morpholine 115 Acetoin 148 N-Methylaniline 196 Acetone 56 N-Methylpiperazine 138 Acetonitrile 81 n-Pentane 36.1 Acetophenone 201.7 n-Pentyl Amine 104 Acetyl Chloride 51 n-Propanol 97.4 Acrolein 52 n-Propyl Bromide 71 Acrolein Diethyl Acetal 125 O Toluidine 199 Acrylonitrile 77.3 o-Chloro Benzaldehyde 209-215 Acryloyl Chloride 74-76 Ortho Phosphoric Acid 135 Allyl Bromide 71.3 Oxalyl Chloride 63 Aniline 184 o-Xylene 138-143 Anisole 154 Petroleum Ether 30 Benzaldehyde 179 Phenyl Acetone 100 Benzene 80 Phenyl Chloro Formate 135 Benzene Sulphonyl Chloride 251 Phenylacetonitrile 234 Benzhydryl Chloride 140 Phenylchloroformate 74 Benzoyl Chloride 197 Phosphorous Tribromide 175 Benzyl Acetoacetate 275 Phosphorous Trichloride 74.2 Benzyl Acrylate 228 Phosporous Oxychloride 105.8 Benzyl Alcohol 203 Pinacolone 106 Benzyl Amine 184 Piperidine 106 Benzyl Bromide 198 Pivaloyl Chloride 105 Benzyl Chloride 175 p-Methoxybenzyl Cyanide 286 Benzyl Chloro Formate 103 p-Methyl Benzaldehyde 204 Benzyl Ethyl Malonate - 85% 138 Propargylamine 83 Bis (Trimethylsilyl) Acetylene 136 Propionaldehyde 46 Bis(Trimethylsilyl) Trifluoroacetamide  BSTFA 145 Propionic Acid 141.1 Boron Trifluoride Diethyl Etherate 126 Propionic Anhydride 167 Bromine 58.78 Propionitrile 97.2 Bromo Benzene 156 Pyridine 115.5 Bromo Ethane 38 Pyridine-4-Carboxaldehyde 77 Bromo Nitro Methane 146 Pyrrole 130 Bromochloromethane 68.1 Pyrrolidine 87 Bromoform 149.50 R(+)-Glycidol 61 Bromotrimethyl Silane 77 Sodium Methoxide Methanol Solution 69 Butyryl Chloride 102 Sulfuric Acid 315 Carbon Tetra Chloride 76.8 Sulfuryl Chloride 69.3 Chloro Acetaldehyde 85 Tert-Butyl Bromo Acetate 50 Chloro Acetic Acid 189 Tertiary Butanol 82 Chloro Acetonitrile 124 Tertiary Butyl Acetate 96 Chloro Acetyl Chloride 105 Tertiary Butylamine 46 Chloro Benzene 131 Tetra Ethyl Ortho Carbonate 159 Chloro Butane 78.5 Tetrahydro-4H-Pyran-4-One 166 Chloroform 60 Tetrahydrofuran 66 Chlorosulfonyl Acetylchloride 71 Thiazolidine 72 Chloro Sulphonic Acid 151 Thionyl Chloride 79 Collidine 171 Thiophene 84.14 Cyclohexane 80.7 Titanium Tetrachloride 136.4 Cyclohexanone 155.6 Titanium Isopropoxide 220 Cyclohexyl Isocyanate 168 Toluene 110.6 Cyclohexylamine 134.5 Tributyl Tin Chloride 171 Cyclopropane Carboxylic Acid 182 Tributylamine 216 Cyclopropylamine 49 Triethyl Ortho Formate 146 Decyl Oleate 363 Triethyl Phosponoacetate 118 Di Benzyl Amine 300 Triethyl Silane 107 Trimethylsilyl Trifluoromethane Sulphonate 77 Triethyl Silyl Chloride (TESCI) 142 Tri-n-Butylamine 216 Triethylamine 89 Valeronitrile 139 Trifluoroacetic Acid 72.4 Valeryl chloride 125 Trimethyl Chloro Silane 58 Valeryl Chloride (Pentanoyl Chloride) 125 Trimethyl Ortho Formate 101

From the above mentioned listing, Petroleum Ether is highly volatile i.e., B.P. is 30°C,

So, Step - 1 is done.

Now, lets move to Step - 2.

Step - 2: Boil-up calculation,

This is somewhat crucial step in the whole process.

To generate maximum boil-up the utility in reactor jacket shall be Saturated steam,
Jacket pressure: 0.2 Kg/Cm2. Temperature: 105.1 °C,[Refer Steam Tables]

A 10 KL SS reactor will have an Heat transfer area of 19.8 Sq.m,[Use this Spreadsheet to calculate the HT Area - Learn it here]
Lets consider 70% occupancy, The effective HT area will be 13.86 Sq.m.

The boil-up shall be calculated based on the formula: M x Æ› = U x A x LMTD.

Petroleum Ether Properties:

Specific heat, Cp: 0.22 KCal/Kg.K,
Latent heat, Æ›: 85 KCal/Kg,

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LMTD calculation: (Î”T1 - Î”T2) / ln(Î”T1/Î”T2)

Î”T1 = 105.1 - 30 = 75.1°C, Î”T2 = 105.1 - 35 = 70.1°C,

LMTD = (75.1 - 70.1) / ln(75.1/70.1) = 72.46°C.

Lets consider U = 250 KCal/Sq.m.hr.K,

U x A x LMTD = 250 x 13.86 x 72.46 = 251073 KCal.

M = 251073 / 85 = 2954 Kgs.

So, the boil-up is 2954 Kgs.

Step - 2 is successful.
Lets move to Step - 3.

Step - 3: Condenser Capacity calculation,

Lets use the basic formula,

(M x Cp x dT) + (M x Æ›) = U x A x LMTD.

Lets calculate,
(M x Cp x dT) + (M x Æ›) = (2954 x 0.22 x 5) + (2954 x 85) = 254340 KCal.

For a condenser we'll consider U as 400 KCal/Sq.m.hr.K,

LMTD calculation: (Î”T1 - Î”T2) / ln(Î”T1/Î”T2),

Consider Chilled water as condenser utility,

Inlet utility temp.: 8°C, Outlet utility temp.: 15°C,

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Î”T1 = 30 - 8 = 22°C, Î”T2 = 30 - 15 = 15°C,

LMTD = ( 22 - 15 ) / ln( 22 / 15 ) = 18.276°C.

A = 254340 / (400 x 18.276) = 21.11 Sq.m.

Considering 20 % excess as safety, A = 21.11 x 1.2 = 25.34 ~26 Sq.m.

So, the required condenser capacity required for 10 KL SS reactor is 26 Sq.m

That's it......!!!

Hope you all got it, if any queries feel free to comment / message.

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Hi! I am Ajay Kumar Kalva, Currently serving as the CEO of this site, a tech geek by passion, and a chemical process engineer by profession, i'm interested in writing articles regarding technology, hacking and pharma technology.

1. How u r considering LMTD for Reactor Boil Up

1. Dear ,

Its just a basic thing, when you are using Overall Heat transfer coefficient, it shall be accompanied by LMTD.

Regards,
AJAY K

2. Why cant we go with Universal Solvent?

1. Dear ,

In general Universal solvent is water, you can consider that too,
In pharma Universal solvent is Methanol,

If you consider Methanol, then it wont be appropriate, because the condenser that you consider shall be useful for performing only cleaning reflux, but not for distillations.

In the above post, i've considered the dead worst case, if the generated boil up can be condensed than automatically it can be useful for all solvent distillations.

Hope you understand, next time kindly comment with your name,

Regards,
AJAY K

3. Hi ajay, how to calculate the secondary condenser for the above problem. here the utility was -15.

Regards by
T.V.RAMANA

1. Dear Sir,

Consider 30% of primary condenser.

Regards,
AJAY K

4. let me know how can you are considered U as 400 KCal/Sq.m.hr.K, and how can you justify that considered valve is correct as you mentioned 10 kl reactor

1. Dear Sir,

http://pharmacalc.blogspot.com/2016/05/overall-heat-transfer-coefficient-Calculation.html,

Any queries feel free to comment,

Regards,
AJAY K

5. Nice Ajay,but when coming to distillation under vacuum, I think condenser area is not sufficient.

Regards

1. Dear Murali,

Can you tell me in detail, what makes you feel like that, if any valid reason i'll extend my post, so that it can be helpful for many visitors.

Regards,
AJAY K

6. Hii ajay thanq for this blog and educating many of the people
I just had a simple formula for selecting a condenser
For example HTA is 20 m2
Take 30% of HTA and add to it. Now it may get approx condenser selection in a simple way.

Whatever you mentioned is thumb rule and can be applicable for GLR's with graphite condensers,
For SSR as per the thumb rule, for reactors with capacity above 2 KL,
primary condenser capacity = 2 x reactor capacity,
Secondary condenser capacity = 0.3 x primary condenser capacity.

Regards,
AJAY K

2. By thumb rule how can we calculate the territory condenser capacity

7. How to calculate addition time for reaction by using lab data

1. Dear Karthik,

Compare both the Heat transfer parameters with time, i mean to say Time is inversely proportional to Heat transfer(U x A x LMTD).

So, Tlab / Tplant = (U x A x LMTD)plant / (U x A x LMTD)lab.

if any queries pl feel free to comment, even you can directly use the RC1e data.

As you have asked for comparison of lab vs plant, i've given you the relation.

Regards,
AJAY K

2. Give one example

8. Dear Ajay,
In one of our product after purification getting tap density above 0.7 limit is 0.3 to 0.7i.e always higher side, after reprocessing the same batch with same purification procedure with same cooling pattern then tap density comes within limit...so pls share thought on it...

1. Dear Mahesh,

Usually during purification stage the material composition will vary, so once try to compare the analysis at both stages, if there is any reduction in impurities in both analysis, then we may say that due to the binding / presence of the subject impurity in that stage lead to that particular tapped density, and then try to evaluate based on varying solvent quantities. It may solve the issue if the vary in quantities lead to subject impurity reduction.

Regards,
AJAY K

9. You name it and South Africa has an abundance of it.

10. Dear Ajay,
One of our product we have initially water content 6% after Jetmilling it goes down below 4% but limit is above 5 % ..
We are using 9 kg/cm2 pressure air with contain 0.0009 gm/m3 water content.
So please tell me that how to match both partial pressure so we can't lose moisture content below 5 % ..please give some calculations for the same...

1. Dear Mahesh,

As per my knowledge the inlet air is not having enough equilibrium moisture, so the air is gonna absorb the moisture from the material during the micronization.

Regards,
AJAY K

11. Dear sir,

Please share latent heat and specific heat capacities of different chemicals.

Regards,

Pl find the required parameters in the below link,
http://pharmacalc.blogspot.com/2018/06/chemical-solvent-properties.html

Best Regards,
AJAY K

12. Is there boil-up rate you calculate is kg/s, if it is not? then how we will calculate chilled water flow rate for condenser in kg/s?.

13. In this the area value is coming wrong.A is coming as 35 M2 after the calculation. But u are showing it is 21 m2

14. let me know as per above area 26 m2 single condenser but if i will go for two condenser can i consider the primary condenser 16 m2 and secondary condenser 10 m2 it applicable for above ot not ??? shall we divide the same ??

1. Dear Rama,

It wont work like that, What so ever i've calculated is applicable for primary condenser only, if you need to add a secondary condenser, it should be approx 30% of the primary condenser, i.e., 26 x 0.3 = 7.8 ~8 Sq.m of secondary.

Regards,
AJAY K

15. VATTURI VENKATESULU6 September 2018 at 22:40

in my company using 3 condensers how to calculate heat transfer area for 3 condensers

1. Dear Sir,

Thats a hypothetical question, so the exact answer can be found at the engineering services person. Kindly consult them.

Best Regards,
AJAY K

16. You considered effective heat transfer area in step 2 calculation.
But actually heat transfer area depends upon the type of jacket that reactor is having ? We need to consider jacket area instead of reactor heat transfer area na? Please clarify my doubt

17. What the meaning of LMTD ans delta T2.

18. delta T2 is temperature difference, LMTD is log mean temp. difference

19. Dear Ajay,
In step 3 LMTD calculation... why you are taking solvent temperature is same.... I think the temp should decrease... by using chilled water utility... then only it get condense... give me reply

1. Dear ,

In the above calculation, i've considered the basic definition as main purpose of condenser is to remove the latent heat, hence i've considered the the vapour temperature twice. And in the sensible heat case, i've considered 5 degree dT, if required you can change that to whatever the extent we want.

Best Regards,
AJAY K

20. sir,
is the above process is same if we are distilling the azeotropic mixture?

1. Dear,

If we are trying to distill out azeotropic mixture we have to add another solvent to make one of the solvent as high boiling fraction, so that it will retain for sometimes if the additionally added solvent forms a low boiling azeotrope, then we have to add azeo box in the collection line.

Best Regards,
AJAY K

21. Dear sir In step 2nd calculation of lmtd please explain

1. Hii Akki,

I think Step-2 is clear, Instead of adding all in one formula, i've splitted into two half's. if you can make me clear what you are not getting, i'll help you. reach me at pharmacalc823@gmail.com

Best Regards,
AJAY K

22. Hi Ajay
I have a doubt. We will have two heat capacities for any reactor. One is total heat required to raise the temperature and other is heat flux available with the reactor. So, my utility flow rate to be calculated based on total heat required or heat flux available. Even though i supply my utility flow rate as per total heat required, only whatever heat flux available that much only will be transferred. Please clarify.

1. Dear ,

There will be two types of loads on utility, sensible load as well as latent load of the system. so we have to consider both of them. if we are able to maintain our reaction mass at reflux temperature then the heat that we supply will be consumed for reflux(i.e., latent load).

Hope you understand.

Next time, kindly comment with your good name plzz.

Best Regards,
AJAY K

23. Hello Sir

I want to know the percentage of solvent loss if the condenser cooling fails under reflux reactions.

TIA

1. Hii Deepika,

in worst case it can be 100%, depends on the latent heat, lower the latent heat lower the loss.

24. Thank you sir for giving such a nice information.....

25. hello sir, i am student of chemical engineering. i just want to confirm the map of equipment of API manufacturing plant.first reactants are poured in batch reactor along with the solvent and then after this all product is injected to crystallizer. and then after crystallization solvent is recoverd by lowering the pressure.and then this product goes to filteration and then it will then proceeded by Drying.and then in some case blending is provided.and finally our API product is ready to go for tabulation.and i just want ask that whether that reaction reactor contains condenser or not???

1. Dear ,

Pl be noted, facility comes first, product comes next. So by default condensers shall be arranged, if its a hydrogenator / autoclaves, condensers are not mandatory.

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