Hello readers.... Good Day!!!

Today i gonna give you a small brief Introduction about Vapour Column and its necessity and also what effect it can have over regular pharma operations.

Usually Vapour Column is a part of a reactor , a part of distillation setup whether it is a product concentration distillation or Solvent Recovery Distillation, its secondary, but vapour column always plays a major role, selection of a wrong Vapour Column can lead to unimaginable cases which will have adverse effects over the ..... Hard to Say, but i have to say even it can have effect over distillation rate, recovery rate, and rate of drying also.

Because if i ask somebody

**,**

*what is the use of Vapour Column / what you know about Vapour Column*Mostly the simply reply comes as a

*Distance piece connected from a Equipment to a condenser or a receiver or a blower/vacuum pump to transfer the vapours that were generated in an operation.*

*But this is time to grow up from that kiddo stage and have to know its Importance, what ever Vacuum Pump Capacity or whatever Condenser or whatever Utility or whatever heat transfer area of the equipment you are using doesn't matter, the thing that only matters is whether you selected a right Dia Vapour Column or not, this is the base of Distillation or Drying operations that were done in pharma field. So, right now i think you you gotta brief about importance of vapour column in pharma engineering. So, now i think you are clear, and i'll start my show...*

Do Read:-

*What is a Vapour Column??***

*Vapour column is a simple line with a 90deg or 45deg elbow bend towards a condenser,*

*What is the need of Vapour Column??***

*A vapour Column used to transfer vapour out of a reactor,*

*How Does Vapour Column has an effect over an Distillation or Drying Operation??***

*Everyone knows how to calculate the flowrate inside a pipeline, so similar calculation need to be applied here, but in a pipe flow we will be taking velocity of fluid, but here our hero is vapour so we need to consider vapour velocity in place of fluid velocity,*

*What is the Calculation involved in calculating the Flowrate inside Vapour Column??***

*Back to Basics again, Flowrate = Fluid Velocity x Cross section area.*

**S**o, i think you are Well Prepared and Can get to point easily,

For Calculation of Vapour Column Size we need to know,

*what amount of boilup need to be carried to condenser [ if this is a normal distillation], how much amount of Suction velocity need to be generated towards reactor [ in case of vacuum distillation]*.

So, i think now i need to give you some info regarding batch boilup, batch boilup is nothing but the amount of volume that has been generated from the heat transfer equipment where we are adding heat to the batch volume, so this boilup majorly depends upon two operating parameters, 1) Pressure, 2) Temperature.

* So usually whenever we need to calculate the boilup based on these parameters, we have to stick to basics and start using ideal gas law, right now i dont want to mention the law, but have a look at the derived equation,

P xV = n x R x T

so here, P, T are operating parameters, n is number of moles, V is Boilup Volume, R is universal gas constant,

So in order to calculate the Boilup volume, i'll transform the equation as V = (n x R x T)/P.

and some more transformation i'll prefer V = ((W/M) x R x T)/P,

So here right now everything is clear , based on the composition of batch volume you consider, you can generate the data for W, M.

W- mass of the solvent (volume of solvent x Density of solvent),

M- molecular weight of solvent.

In case of binary mixture, you can split that W/M to (W1/M1)+(W2/M2).

So, Now you got a Clear vision over Boilup,

Its time to jump to main concept Vapour Column size,

So first of all we need to know what amount of boilup we need to generate, for that we use the formula,

V = W x (359/M) x (1/60), by this we will be getting in Cu.ft/sec,

So, now as usually i'll prefer customization's to make it work for different operating parameters, so i'll be adding some extra functions like, (760/P) for pressure and (T/489.67) for temperature..,

Finally it will be V = W x (359/M) x (760/P) x (T/489.67) x (1/60),

here you need to convert T to Rankine, for that you need to know,

T, R= (9/5) x T, K

So, now integrating all the above,

V = W x (359/M) x (760/P) x (T/489.67) x (1/60),

Input W in lbs / hr, we will be getting V in Cu.ft/sec and for Air-load we can add 2-5% overall of volumetric flow-rate of boilup,

And after this we need to decide whether its a Normal distillation or Vacuum Distillation,

if its Normal Distillation we Can have Vapour Velocity,

**v**= 100ft/sec, and

for Vacuum Distillation we can have vapour velocity,

**v =**170-180ft/sec,

So, finally for calculating Dia we use optimum pipe diameter,

D, ft = 0.147 x SQRT( V / v)

, convert this to inches, 1ft = 12 inch

For Those who need, we are providing the Excel sheet, Download Here

**About the Author**

Hi! I am Ajay Kumar Kalva, Currently serving as the CEO of this site, a techoholic geek by passion, and a chemical process engineer by profession, i'm interested in writing articles regarding technology, hacking and pharma technology.

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M value to be taken is g/mol or Kg/mol

ReplyDeleteThere is not that much to think over the units for molecular weight, anyway for your knowledge the equation above mentioned is in FPS units, so it need to be mentioned in Lb / Mole.

DeleteHello ajay.your blogs r very knowledgeable and interesting.I want your help.I want to find out u loop calculation which we found in reflux line of api reactors for traping the vapour from going in condenser . specifically the hight of loop.waiting for your response.

ReplyDeleteHey Rutika, thanks for your comment,

DeleteBasically there wont be any straight way calculation for that U loop located reflux condensate line, but based on just your approximation you can derive the height, and you may use P = rho x g x H, H is height, P is pressure, based on the temperature of the distillate using antonie equation you can get the vapour pressure, that's it,

Still any queries feel free to comment

Regards,

PHARMA ENGINEERING

Nice site Ajay

ReplyDeleteGod bless u

Thanks buddy....!!!!

DeleteHai ajay i'm venkat,

ReplyDeletei didn't got this step. Can you please explain me in detail.

V = W x (359/M) x (1/60), by this we will be getting in Cu.ft/sec,

And also what are the units you have considered for W and M like gm/mol or Kg/mol.

Hey venkat, glad you read my post,

Delete(1/60) is a time conversion factor,

359 is standard molecular wt.

W is the mass flowrate that you want to generate

hai ajay again i have one more doubt, in above comment you mentioned standard molecular weight as 359, standard molecular weight of which substance?

DeleteHey buddy,

DeleteThat 359 includes molecular weight(Mercury) and conversions for converting MKS to FPS.

Regards,

AJAY K

dear ajay i not able to understand how u put 359.

Deleteplease simplify.

regards

raj

please give me ans.Molar mass of Hg = 200.59 g/mol then how you put 359 .

Deleteraj

Dear Raj,

DeleteThanks for landing here, if you can see here all the units were of different systems, and the 359 is the make up value of all the unit systems to make the final value to FPS, it includes all the unit conversions except time.

And as you have mentioned the mercury atomic mass / molecular weight is 200 g/mole.

Regards,

AJAY K

Hi Ajay

ReplyDeleteEvery solvents has individual vapour velocity,In above calculation why r we using standard vapour velocity for normal or vaccum distillation...?

Under vacuum, there wont be any considerable change in vapour velocity,

DeleteBut coming to normal distillation, the velocity depends upon the following factors [Directly & Indirectly],

1. Vapour density, [Directly]

2. Heat supply for evaporation, [Directly]

3. Vapour line sizing, [Directly]

4. Vapour pressure developed inside reactor, [Directly]

5. Utility supply to condenser. [Indirectly]

To make the concept clear, i've given it as constant.

Regards,

AJAY K

how to caliculate the batch reactor vapour coloumn height and dia meters. Say evaporation is 20 kg/hr

ReplyDeleteDear,

DeleteW = 20Kg/hr, T(R) = 617.17(Say), P = 200 torr(Say), M.wt. 100 kg/mole(Say),

Q = 3.89 cu.ft/sec, Pipe dia = 0.02 ft.

hi please mention what is S and Q?

ReplyDeleteSQRT refers to Square Root

DeleteHi ajay

ReplyDeleteyours work was fabulous. Can u give the vapour column size for methanol distillation?

here my quantity was 1 kl methanol and also please be say how can we find evaporation rate(w).

Hey Venkataramana, thanks for your compliment, W is nothing but our requirement, what amount of boil up / Distillate we want from the reactor. If you want to know the Vapor column size then you need to know the boil up, what are the distillation parameters, and the solvent properties like Mol. wt., Reactor HTA, etc

DeleteRegards,

AJAY K

Here my reactor capacity was 1.5kl and the properties of methanol was boiling temperature 70 degree celcius, molecular weight 32 gm/mol , vapour pressure 13.2 KPsc.

Deleteyou forget mentioning about the reaction mass volume, i'll consider it as around 70% occupancy in reactor and methanol as a pure component in the reaction mass,

DeleteSo volume will be 1050 L , Cp = 0.45 KCal/Kg.K, density = 792 Kg/Cu.m, Latent heat = 264KCal,

Heat transfer area of 1.5KL SS reactor will be around 5.6 sq.m, available heat transfer area = 5.6x0.7 = 3.92 sq.m,

U = ~200 KCal/hr.Sq.m.K, now lets get into calculation,

( m x Cp x dT ) + ( M x lamda ) = U x A x dTln

( 1.05 x 792 x 0.45 x 35 ) + ( M x 264 ) = 200 x 3.92 x 23.6

M = 20.47 Kg/hr

So boilup =20.47 Kg/hr. = W,

V = 20.47 x ( 359 / 32 ) x ( 760 / 99 ) x ( 617.67/ 489.67 ) x ( 1 / 60 )

= 37.06 Cu.ft / Sec.

D,ft = 0.147 x Sqrt((37.06/100))

= 0.08 ft = 1.07" ~ 2" vapour line need to be installed.

Still any queries, feel free to contact me.

Regards,

AJAY K

hello please suggest me why your taken pressure as 99 mmhg (760/p)

ReplyDeleteHey, Mr. Anonymous, in the above comment Mr. Venkataramana mentioned the Vapour pressure to be 13.2KPas, which on conversion turns to be 99 mmHg. hope you got the answer,

DeleteRegards,

AJAY KUMAR

Hi Ajay.. This is Ram..Hope u r doing well..Can you please tell me the design of Vacuum pump(Capacity) for Reactor distillation

ReplyDeleteDear Ram,

DeletePlease follow the link, and use your distillation vapour pressure in place of Î”P,

http://pharmacalc.blogspot.com/2016/03/how-to-select-required-pump-capacity.html

If any queries feel free to comment/message.

Regards,

AJAY K

Hi ajay.. Is there effect of Vapour column height on distillation in Reactors

ReplyDeleteDear Ram,

DeleteSurely, if the vapour density is higher, then automatically it needs more pressure to reach the condenser, Vapours with lower density needs less pressure, if its atmospheric distillation, then the vapours with low density than air will have some advantage.

Regards,

Ajay K

Thx ajay..I need one more clarification, if there is a dependency of Vapour column height then what is the optimum Height you suggest for both atmospheric & Vacuum distillation

DeleteDear Ram,

Deletewe can only decide height based on vapor density, and if the density is higher its better to arrange vertical condenser setup, so that we can eliminate one 90 degree elbow bend, if its a vacuum distillation, there's no matter of horizontal or vertical condensers. this is what we can do.

Regards,

AJAY K

Okay..do you have a calculation formula for height vs vapour density

DeleteHow can we design the reflux loop height in the reflux line for distillation of Reactors

DeleteConsider the optimum pressure drop as 0.5 Kg/cm2, and calculate the height with relation dP = density x 9.81 x height.

DeleteRegards,

AJAY K

I am not getting the exact answer. I may have problem with the units, can you please illustrate by taking an example( for ex: Ethyl acetate whose density is 897 kg/m3)

ReplyDelete0.5 Kg/cm2 = 49033 Pas,

Delete49033 = 897 x 9.80665 x h,

h = 5.57 m,

So for Ethyl acetate distillation, the max height you need to consider is 5.57m, above that there will be 100% reflux inside your vapour line, what ever the boil up you get it will be condensed in the line itself.

Hope you understand,

Regards,

AJAY K

The above calculation is for height of vapour column or Condensate reflux 'U' loop height??

DeletePlease reply to the above

DeleteDear Ram,

Deleteif you want to calculate the height of vapour column, then use the relation

PV = nRT to calculate the vapour density,

Density = ( P x mol. wt. ) / ( R x T ),

From this density calculate the height from the relation, P = density x g x h.

Regards,

AJAY K

Hello Ajay, Can you suggest for which one I can go either FBC Boiler or FO Boiler if my plant consumption is 6 Ton/hr. Can u differentiate both types in cost/operational(Initial investment & Operational cost)

DeleteHi.. I need to calculate the depth of the U loop/seal below the reflux drum. Could you please help with aprrox calculation. you take above ethyl acetate example.

ReplyDeleteDear,

DeleteCan you please confirm me whether you need the reflux line loop of distillation reactor or distillation column reflex drum loop ??

Regards,

AJAY K

Next time kindly reply back with your Name pl.

DeleteRegards,

AJAY K

Sorry about that.. i need the reflux drum loop of distillation column.

ReplyDeleteRegards,

Vaishnavi

I need distillation column relux drum loop.

ReplyDeleteRegards,

Vaishnavi

Dear Vaishnavi,

DeleteThere won't be any specific calculation for the loop you have mentioned in distillation column, as in some cases even they wont have any reflux drum also.

The U loop in the reflux line is particularly required if the reflux is being done in reactor, as the condensed liquid which will again enter the reactor may create some back pressure over the vapour that is generated inside the reactor, to avoid that basically U loop is designed,

Here i can show you how the loop is designed.

Everyone knows solvent boiling starts at atmospheric pressure, i.e., 101325 Pascals.

Lets suppose the reactor condenser is located 3m above the reactor and the length of the collection line around 2.8m,

that means the condensate falls from a height of 2.8m,

in that case the back pressure shall be 897 x 2.8 x 9.81 = 24638.79 Pascals.

No you need to reduce the back pressure, so u need to raise a straight line on the reactor having 0.2m head, this will create 897 x 9.81 x 0.2 = 1759.91 Pascals.

That means nearly the pressure got reduced by 90%, that how we need to design the loop over the reactor to have control over the back pressure and rate of vaporization.

Regards,

AJAY K

TANGUDU VENKATARAMANA29 July 2017 at 17:37

ReplyDeleteHere my reactor capacity was 1.5kl and the properties of methanol was boiling temperature 70 degree celcius, molecular weight 32 gm/mol , vapour pressure 13.2 KPsc.

Sir in this problem you have used dTln=23.6 ,how you have assumed it?

Dear Pratim,

DeleteBeing frank Cant remember exactly how i've taken that valve, sorry for that, its been a long time after replying back to that comment.

Regards,

AJAY K

Dear Pratim,

DeleteBeing frank Cant remember exactly how i've taken that valve, sorry for that, its been a long time after replying back to that comment.

Regards,

AJAY K

Then normally in this case to calculate LMTD whose temp.values are required?

ReplyDeleteInitial and final temperatures of Utility and reaction mass.

DeleteRegards,

AJAY K

Hello Ajay, please give the calculation for LMTD if my hot fluid is steam inlet temperature was 130 degree centigrade and my targeted heating solvent was methanol at 30 degree centigrade. How to find LMTD for this case? Please give the calculation.

ReplyDeleteDear,

DeleteKindly go through this link:

http://pharmacalc.blogspot.com/2016/11/lmtd-correction-factor.html

if its steam, then simply for hot fluid the in and out temperature remains the same, only the cold fluid temperature varies.

Next time kindly comment with your real name.

Regards,

AJAY K

Dear Ajay how much temp. Diff. In atmosphere and vacuum distillation in batch reactor any relation ship pls share

ReplyDeleteDear,

Deletepl go through this post, vaporisation temperature depends on the vacuum that is maintained in the reactor,

http://pharmacalc.blogspot.com/2016/12/how-boiling-point-varies-with-vapor.html

Next time kindly comment with your real name.

Regards,

AJAY K

Dear ajay

ReplyDeleteD, ft = 0.147 x SQRT( V / v) how can u taken this u equation pls explain in detail and how can u take vapor velocity values for normal nd vacuum distillation

Dear,

DeleteThe equation is derived from optimum pipe diameter concept, the vapour velocities were from thumb rule.

Regards,

AJAY K

V = W x (359/M) x (760/P) x (T/489.67) x (1/60), in this equation where is the R value

ReplyDeleteDear,

Delete359 is the product of conversions and inclusion of R.

Regards,

AJAY K

V = W x (359/M) x (760/P) x (T/489.67) x (1/60), How 1/60 came ? where is R ?

ReplyDeleteDear Sanjay,

Delete1/60 is a time factor, R is merged and then 359 is generated.

Regards,

AJAY K

Finally it will be V = W x (359/M) x (760/P) x (T/489.67) x (1/60),

ReplyDeleteCan you please explain in detail how it be?

It is derived from ideal gas law.

DeleteRegards,

AJAY K

I was trying but didn't get it. Can you explain??

DeleteDear WAYFARER,

DeleteDue to my profession,i'm little busy, that's why i'm not approving the comments, Here is the derivation,

in the above formula, W is in Lbs/hr,

Molecular wt. of mercury is 200 g/mole = 0.441 Lbs/mole,

0.441 x 814 = 358.974 ~359, here 814 is universal gas constant with units of erg / K.mole.

Hope you got it. If any queries feel free to comment/mail.

Regards,

AJAY K

Dear Ajay,

DeleteThis is ramya

I think it's not the mercury molecular weight.... At STP conditions... 1 kmole of gas occupies 359 cu ft per sec (In FPS units)... 22.414 cubic meter .. In SI units... hope you will give reply for this comment

Dear Ajay,

DeleteThis is ramya

I think it's not the mercury molecular weight.... At STP conditions... 1 kmole of gas occupies 359 cu ft per sec (In FPS units)... 22.414 cubic meter .. In SI units... hope you will give reply for this comment

Hii Ramya,

Deleteyeah, what you said is correct, 1 Kmole of gas occupies 22.414 m3 of volume,

but 1 m3 = 35.3147 ft3 and 22.414 m3 = 791.54 ft3.

Any query, feel free to comment.

Best Regards,

AJAY K

I have got 800 kg/hr of acetone to evaporate.. what could be my vapor line diameter and height

ReplyDeleteDear ,

DeleteUse the simulated sheet to calculate the required.

If any probs, contact me/comment here.

Next time, comment with your name pl.

Regards,

AJAY K

Dear ajay

ReplyDeletethis is ramya

D, ft = 0.147 x SQRT( V / v) how can u taken this equation pls explain in detail and how can u take vapor velocity values for normal nd vacuum distillation

Dear Ramya,

DeleteVapour velocity can be calculated based on an assumption, considering the vapour as an ideal gas,

Velocity (m/sec) = ( 3 x R x T / M )^0.5.

And in this case, i've considered based on thumb as at 2 torr 230 ft/sec 5 torr 210 ft/sec and an average vacuum it will be 170-180 ft/sec and at atmospheric condition 100 ft/sec,

These are my considerations.

The equation for line size is taken from optimum pipe diameter.

Best Regards,

AJAY K

Hello Ajay,

ReplyDeleteI have a problem regarding reflux in distillation column. I need to calculate the depth of the U loop below the reflux drum. The material is coming from reflux drum and goes to column via a U loop or seal. Before it goes to column, there is one product withdrawal line. Product withdrawal line is on the one side of U loop and reflux is on the other side of U loop.

Hii Daxesh,

DeleteCan you share me a hand drawing to my mail id: pharmacalc823@gmail.com. so that i can help you.

Best Regards,

AJAY K

Plz tell me Bulk density increases in cooling crystalization

ReplyDeleteHii Sunil,

DeleteIt depends on the variation of RPM and the rate of cooling, If possible pl proceed with FBRM studies with different agitators, you will get it.

As per me, i'll prefer Anchor agitator with mixing at Just suspended speed(Njs), that can be the best possible solution when FBRM is not performed.

Refer this link for Njs: https://www.pharmacalculations.com/2019/05/crystallization-scale-up-using-zweittering-eqn.html

Best Regards,

AJAY K